Standardization and certification of products
An important place in the quality management system is the standardization and certification of products, which are components of state quality management system, which includes:
• laws and regulations governing the rights and responsibilities of producers and consumers;
• the state system of standardization of requirements to quality of products and monitoring of compliance with the standards and condition of measuring equipment;
• state statistical reporting on the technical level of development and quality of manufactured products.
Standardization of products (works, services) is the development and establishment of requirements, rules, regulations, characteristics of both mandatory and recommended for implementation in the quality management process of production (works, services). Standardization is a tool to improve the quality of products (works, services) on the basis of NTP and acceleration of activation of innovative-investment activity at all levels of management.
Objectives of the standardization of products (works, services) are:
• safety of goods (works, services) for life and health, property and the environment;
• technical and information compatibility and interchangeability of products;
• quality in accordance with the level of development of science, engineering and technology;
• unity of measurements;
• conserve resources;
• the security of economic objects considering the risk of natural and technological disasters;
• defense capability and mobilization readiness of the country.
Objects of standardization are products, work (processes), services (tangible and intangible).
In the standardization of products (raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products) it can be subjected to a particular type or group of homogeneous products, specifications, methods of control, packaging options, settings, labeling, rules of acceptance, storage, transportation, operation, repair, disposal.
Standardization (of processes) can relate to the following elements: specific types of work at separate stages of lifecycle of the development, production, operation (use), storage, transport, repair and disposal; environmental requirements; methods of control.
Standardization of tangible and intangible services is provided for specific and groups of services, technical conditions; control methods; requirements of the staff.
Forms and methods of interaction of the enterprises with each other and with state management bodies established by the standards of the state standardization system.
Standard is a normative document on standardization, approved by the standardization body — the State Committee for standardization.
The system of standardization, which corresponds to the adopted laws «On technical rationing and standardization» and «On conformity assessment to requirements of technical normative legal acts in the field of technical regulation and standardization».
All normative documents on standardization shall be divided into following types:
— international standards;
— interstate (regional) standards;
— state standards;
standards of the organization;
— technical conditions.
The requirements set by normative documents on standardization should be based on modern achievements of science, engineering and technology, considering the conditions of use of products (performance of works, rendering of services), conditions and modes of work, and should not violate provisions established by law.
Certification is an activity of relevant bodies and economic entities aimed at confirmation of conformity of products to the specific requirements set by the standards or other normative documents on standardization. Product certification is a guarantee to the consumer that it meets the requirements.
The main objectives of certification are:
• creation of equal conditions for activities of enterprises, organizations and businessmen in the uniform commodity market, as well as days of participation in international trade;
• protect the consumer from purchasing products, including imported goods, which is dangerous for life, health and the environment;
• confirmation of the quality parameters declared by the manufacturer;
• promote export and increase competitiveness of products.
The law «On conformity assessment to requirements of normative legal acts in the sphere of technical regulation and standardization» determined that the objects of conformity assessment are:
• the products;
• the processes of development, production, operation, storage, transportation, realization and disposal of products;
• provision of services;
• quality management system;
• the system of environmental management;
• competence of a legal entity in performance of works on confirmation of conformity and (or) testing of products;
• the professional competence of staff to carry out certain works and services.
The subjects of conformity assessment are:
— public authorities (state standard and other state bodies in the field conformity assessment);
— accredited certification bodies;
— accredited testing laboratories (centers);
— applicants for accreditation or attestation of conformity.
Documents on conformity assessment are:
— the certificate of accreditation;
— certificate of conformity;
— Declaration of conformity;
— a certificate of competency.
A document certifying that the company produces goods meeting all the requirements of the standard is a certificate of compliance.
Certification can have obligatory and voluntary. At obligatory certification, the company in accordance with the rules of the certification system shall be issued a certificate of compliance that confirms compliance with all established requirements to products, and voluntary certification, the company received the conformity mark indicates that products or services meet the requirements of a specific standard or other normative document. To establish that the certified product continues to meet specified requirements, confirmed at certification, is conducted the inspection control.
The certification of products
Certification of products passes through the following basic stages:
— submission of application for certification;
— consideration and adoption of the decision on the application;
— the selection, identification of samples and their testing;
— verification of production (if provided by the certification scheme);
— analysis of the obtained results, the decision on granting of the certificate;
— issuance of the certificate and license (permit) for the application of conformity mark;
— inspection control over certified products in accordance with the certification scheme.
Certification of individual schemes some stages can not be provided.
Consider the content of each stage:
For certification the applicant shall submit a request to the appropriate OS. If you have multiple OS on certification of the product, the applicant may send the application to any of them.
Recall, that the applicant can be any legal entity (or individual entrepreneur), which is the product certification that recognize the rules of system of certification and are required to pay the costs for it.
Under the mandatory certification scheme with the use of a Declaration of conformity, the applicant shall submit the OS together with the application and Declaration of conformity.
OS considers the application and (within 15 days) notify the applicant of the decision. The solution contains all of the basic conditions of certification, including: certification (if the applicant himself suggested); the list of required documents, a list of accredited IL; a list of authorities that can carry out the certification of production or quality system (if envisaged by certification scheme). The choice of a particular MUD, the OS for the certification of quality system (production) the applicant shall.
In accordance with the «regulations on certification system GOST R» certification allowed products are fit for intended use with the necessary marking and technical documentation, containing information about products in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation (for the goods in accordance with the RF Law «On protection of consumer rights»).
The selection of samples for testing shall, as a rule, IL. Tests carried out on samples design, composition and production technology which should be the same as products supplied to the customer (client).
The number of samples, their selection and retention shall be established in accordance with normative documents or the organizational-methodical documents of certification.
Undertaken at this stage, the identification must confirm the authenticity of the product, in particular under the name, the batch number indicated on the label.
The tests are performed in IL, is accredited to carry out the tests provided for in the LP used in the certification of these products. Test reports shall be submitted to the applicant and to the OS. Copies of test records and the tested samples shall be stored during the validity period of the certificate.
Depending on the certification scheme can analyze the condition of production, certification of production and quality system.
OS after analyzing the test reports, inspection of production carries out the assessment of conformity of production to established requirements. In case of positive results, the OS executes the certificate and registers it. The certificate is only valid if the registration number is available. At obligatory certification, the certificate shall be issued if the product complies with all the requirements of all normative documents, established for this product. An integral part of the certificate of conformity is the certificate of fire safety.